Effect of Nursing Protocol Regarding Nasal Skin Breakdown for Preterm Infants Receiving Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Context: Neonates, particularly those who are born premature, may require ventilation assistance immediately after birth, since their lung may not be fully developed. The use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasing as a means of respiratory support in many premature infants. So, the presence of nasal skin breakdown may be seen as a complication.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of nursing protocol regarding nasal skin breakdown for preterm infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
Methods: A quasi-experimental research design utilized to conduct the current study. The study conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) and Surgical Neonatal Intensive Care Unit "SNICU" of Benha Specialized Pediatric Hospital at Benha city. A convenient sample of nurses (70) working in NICU sand SNICU and a purposive random sample of (77) preterm infants included from the settings mentioned above. Those premature infants were divided into two groups (study and control) (35) in the control group and (42) in the study group, who selected according to the power analysis equation based on the total number of preterm infants who admitted to the setting mentioned above during 2017. Three tools used. A structured interviewing questionnaire sheet designed to assess nurses’ sociodemographic characteristics, and nurses' knowledge regarding CPAP, care provided to preterm infants undergoing CPAP, and nasal skin breakdown. The second tool was a nursing practice observation checklist to assess nurses' practice regarding nasal CPAP. The third tool was Preterm Medical Assessment Record. It designed to assess the characteristics of preterm infants and medical data of preterm infants. The last tool was the Neonatal Skin Condition Score (NSCS) scale that is designed to assess the neonates’ skin condition.
Results: Findings of the present study revealed a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) pre and post nursing protocol implementation regarding CPAP, the role of the nurse caring for preterm infants undergoing nasal CPAP, and nasal skin breakdown. The results also revealed a highly statistically significant difference in nursing practice regarding care for preterm infants undergoing nasal CPAP pre and post nursing protocol implementation at (p<0.001). Nasal Skin Breakdown in the study group was significantly less than in the control group at a different time of assessment at (p˂0.001).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the research hypothesis is accepted, nursing protocol implemented for nurses improved their knowledge and practice as well as reduced nasal skin breakdown in the preterm newborns receiving NCPAP. The study recommended applying the nursing protocol for nurses caring for preterm infants to reduce nasal skin breakdown during CPAP ventilation, which is an effective and safe non-invasive intervention in all NICUs as a standard of care for all preterm infants.
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